EV Charging Station Requirements in USA: Regulations, Standards, and Infrastructure
With the rise in demand for EVs (Electrical Vehicles), especially in the USA, the requirement for EV charging stations also rises. However, in the USA, EV charging stations must follow standards and regulations to cope with the charging.
This is mainly because of inconsistent regulations and inadequate infrastructure existence. This indirectly led to non-uniform EV adoption and prevented many EV drivers from convenient access to EV charging stations.
To highlight and emphasize these issues, this article aims to highlight the EV charging station requirements in the USA. Get insights on what standards the EV charging station needs to adhere to. And what regulations they need to follow in the USA. Sounds captivating? Let’s dive right in!
Click to read our article：Smart Charging of Electric Vehicles – Everything you have to know
EV Charging Stations in the USA – Overview
The total number of EV charging stations is on the rise in the USA. This is true, especially for the past few decades. The main reason behind this is because of the more significant contributions by the federal government.
The federal government has proposed the bipartisan infrastructure law. However, more number of EV charging stations are needed in the underserved and rural communities.
Essential Standards, Regulations, and Infrastructure Requirements
When setting up the EV charging station in the USA, specific standards, regulations, and infrastructure requirements pop up. These are as follows for your consideration:
Multiple state and federal regulations are in place for EV charging stations. For instance, the NEVI (National Electric Vehicle Infrastructure) points out the minimum standards for setting up EV charging stations.
The first regulation is the connector standard. It is no boner that the connector offers a linkage for the electrical connection between the EV and the charging station. There are different connector types exist. But the one, as per regulation, that every EV charging station needs to ensure is J1772.
We mentioned it in our previous article: AC J1772: Overview, Significance, and Compatibility with EVs
The main reason behind this is that it is a standard connector that almost every vehicle supports. However, possessing every connector can make your EV charging station universal. This way, you can cope with the needs of the charging of various vehicles.
The next thing on the list is the power requirement. This thing varies depending on the level of charging a vehicle can cater before setting up your EV charging station in the USA. You need to make sure that the power source can cope with the power requirement. You can do so by accessing and analyzing the power production of the nearby grid.
In the USA, the EV charging station regulations are set by the NEVI. As per NAVI, the standards the EV charging stations in the USA need to follow include the following:
- The EV charging stations must have a standard network connection, and public users can easily access these stations.
- The total number of EV chargers within a specific EV charging station should not be less than four.
- The connector availability at the prerequisite EV charging stations must be standard.
- Every EV charging station should share updated or real-time data when it comes to pricing and availability.
Setting up the EV charging station in specific vicinities requires the acquisition of a special permit. The permitting requirements vary from state to state within the USA. It depends on two things: one is the location where you want to install the EV station. The second thing is the type of EV charging station.
The EV charging stations must be accessible to all. This means whether the user is disabled or physically disabled. The parking space and access to the connector and cable must be convenient.
Do not place the connector at extra height so that it will be difficult for the people to unplug and plug it into their vehicle. Moreover, the EV charger easily allows the parking for the car and alignment. There should be no extra hurdles or hindrances on the route.
Apart from the regulations mentioned above, other regulations exist. These regulations include fire codes, building codes, and zoning requirements. Cross-check with the local or federal level authorities to make an informed decision regarding these regulations.
For example, the fire code regulations mean placing the automotive fire suppressant systems. In case there is a sudden accident that takes place because of fire. Then, the fire suppressants can overcome their impact.
Building code regulations determine that the installation of the EV charging station is as per the rules of building codes. This code reflects that the EV charging station does not possess an adverse impact on the environment and location. Apart from this, neither is its existence affecting the presence of nearby buildings within the vicinity.
Multiple standards exist when it comes to setting up EV charging stations. Two organizations play a vital role in this regard. These include the NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association) and SAE International. The essential standards that you need to follow include the following:
SAEJ1772 standard: When charging with the AC connectors, you need to follow this standard in the USA.
SAE J3068 standard: When charging with the DC connectors, you need to follow this standard in the USA.
Apart from the above standards, the other means you need to follow include payment, communication protocol, and networking.
Multi-payment disbursement options allow you to offer EV charging station users added-up convenience. This way, users can pay the payment against charging through any means they want.
Make sure to set up cash, cheques, online transfers, mobile app funding, QR codes, RFID, etc. The more the number of options for payment disbursement, the more it will be convenient for the users.
To facilitate the seamless payment transfer and EV charging station operation. You also need to take care of the networking system establishment. Make sure to set up a smooth and stable network connection featuring an optimum level of speed.
With this feature, you can enjoy a complete level of control over multiple parameters. Some of the key parameters include the EV charging station usage, payment disbursement, chargers in use, chargers free, etc. All of this is only on a remote basis. With just software, you can control all of this, and you can save labor costs this way.
Multiple safety standards play a crucial role in the smooth working of EV charging stations. The NFPA (National Fire Protection Association) and UL (Underwriters Laboratories) play a vital role in this regard. Two standards come under this category. These standards include the following:
UL2594: A safety standard for the safe functioning of the EV charging stations.
NEC Article 625: It refers to the National Electric Code that features EV charging station standards compliance.
Besides the above, other safety standards that require your attention include environmental protection and electrical safety.
For electrical safety, while setting up the electrical connections, make sure that there are no ground faults. Instead, deal with the proper grounding so that any extra electricity goes into the ground. Acting on this, you can avoid injury, accident, or damage to your components.
For the concern of environmental protection, make sure the design of the EV charging station allows for effective stormwater management.
Overcoming Affordability Barriers
The cost of the different charging stations featuring different levels of charging varies. In general, the price of the DC fast chargers is much higher than the level 1 or level 2 chargers. There are subsidies for setting up EV charging stations. You can acquire a backing while setting up your EV charging station.
In case you don’t want to choose the subsidy, then an option exists to select the partner program. One or more partners setting up the same EV charging station can help divide the total cost.
This way, each party can face a lower level of cost. Besides this, private-public partnerships are another way to go when it comes to the setting up of EV charging stations.
Influence of the EV Charging On Grid
Before setting up the EV charging station on the grid. You need to consider the load it puts on the nearby grid. Make sure to consider the influences on the electricity supply and demand. In case the EV charging station affects the functioning of the grid or deprives of the load.
Then, this way, you can choose the renewable energy solution. This way, you become independent of the grid. Instead, you can contribute to the nearby grid by offering excess electricity supply.
This is true in terms of the solar charging. Options exist to go for wind turbine power or solar power as per your suitability. In other words, this way, you can bypass the inverter usage in your EV charging station.
You don’t need to convert the AC power to DC to contribute to faster charging. For level three or super fast charging, you can fulfill the requirements and needs with renewable sources of energy. This allows you to double up or boost your net revenue in the long run.
Every state or country has specific regulations, standards, and guidelines for the installation of EV charging stations, including PiwinEV Charging. Following these guidelines and standards can prevent you from facing any penalty or legal acquisition.
This way, you cannot only enjoy efficient and effective functioning in the long run. But you can also make the operation of EV Charging stations smooth and optimal.
Related Reading: How to Buy the Right DC Charging Station